A. The augmented estate means the decedent’s entire estate passing by will or intestate succession, real and personal, after payment of allowances and exemptions under Article 2 (§ 64.2-309 et seq.) of this chapter, funeral expenses, charges of administration that shall not include federal or state transfer taxes, and debts, and to which is added the following amounts:
1. The value of property, other than tangible personal property received by gift and the proceeds thereof, owned or acquired by the surviving spouse at the decedent’s death, to the extent the property is derived from the decedent by any means other than by will or intestate succession without full consideration in money or money’s worth;
2. The value of property, other than tangible personal property received by gift and the proceeds thereof, derived by the surviving spouse from the decedent without full consideration in money or money’s worth by any means other than by will or intestate succession, and transferred by the surviving spouse at any time during the marriage to a person other than the decedent, which would have been includable in the surviving spouse’s augmented estate if the surviving spouse had predeceased the decedent; and
3. The value of property transferred to anyone other than a bona fide purchaser by the decedent at any time during the marriage to the surviving spouse, to or for the benefit of any person other than the surviving spouse, to the extent that the decedent did not receive full consideration in money or money’s worth for the transfer, if the transfer was any of the following types:
a. Any transfer under which the decedent retained for his life, for any period not ascertainable without reference to his death, or for any period which does not in fact end before his death, the possession or enjoyment of, or the right to income from, the property;
b. Any transfer to the extent that the decedent retained for his life, for any period not ascertainable without reference to his death, or for any period which does not in fact end before his death, the power, either alone or in conjunction with any other person, to revoke or to consume, invade, or dispose of the principal for his own benefit;
d. Any transfer made to or for the benefit of a donee within the calendar year of the decedent’s death or any of the five preceding calendar years to the extent that the aggregate value of the transfers to the donee exceeds the amount specified in § 2503(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, for that calendar year, without regard to whether the federal gift tax exclusion applies to the transfer.
B. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the augmented estate shall not include (i) the value of any property transferred by the decedent during marriage with the written consent or joinder of the surviving spouse; (ii) the value of any property, its income, or proceeds received by the decedent, before or during the marriage to the surviving spouse, by gift, will, intestate succession, or any other method or form of transfer to the extent it was (a) received without full consideration in money or money’s worth from a person other than the surviving spouse, and (b) maintained by the decedent as separate property; (iii) any transfer made to anyone other than the surviving spouse prior to January 1, 1991, to the extent that such transfer was irrevocable on that date; or (iv) the value of any property excluded from the augmented estate pursuant to § 64.2-317.
C. Property is valued as of the decedent’s death, except that property irrevocably transferred during the lifetime of the decedent is valued as of the date the transferee came into possession or enjoyment of the property if such date precedes the date of the decedent’s death.
1. Life estates and remainder interests are valued in the manner prescribed in Article 2 (§ 55-269.1 et seq.) of Chapter 15 of Title 55, and deferred payments and estates for years are discounted to present value using the interest rate specified in § 55-269.1.
2. The value of an insurance policy that is irrevocably transferred during the lifetime of a decedent is the cost of a comparable policy on the date of the transfer or, if such a policy is not readily available, the policy’s interpolated terminal reserve. The value of any premiums paid on an insurance policy owned by another person is only the amount of the premiums paid and not the insurance purchased or maintained with such premiums.
3. An initial interest in property owned as a joint tenant with survivorship is valued at the time the interest is acquired, and a further interest received upon the death of a cotenant is valued at the time of the cotenant’s death. Property owned jointly by persons married to each other is rebuttably presumed to have been acquired with contributions of equal value by each tenant. The mere creation of an indebtedness secured by jointly owned property is not a contribution to its acquisition, but any satisfaction of such an indebtedness is a contribution. An interest in a tenancy by the entireties is valued as if it were an interest in a joint tenancy with survivorship. Joint accounts in financial institutions are valued in accordance with the provisions of Article 2 (§ 6.2-604 et seq.) of Chapter 6 of Title 6.2.
1990, c. 831, § 64.1-16.1; 1992, cc. 617, 647; 1998, c. 234; 1999, c. 38; 2007, c. 308; 2012, c. 614; 2014, c. 532.